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Valerie A Schoof

Assistant Professor

Biology

   Hilliard D116
   416-736-2100 x88286
   vschoof@glendon.yorku.ca
   https://valerieamschoof.com/

I am a primate behavioural ecologist interested in factors that influence, and are influenced by, social dominance in male primates. I use a multidisciplinary approach to explore the costs and benefits of male dominance in non-human primates to better understand how individuals navigate the complexities of competition and cooperation associated with life in social groups.

Doctorate:
2013: Biological Anthropology, Tulane University

Masters:
2009: Biological Anthropology, Tulane University

Bachelor of Science (Honours)
2002: Biology, Queen's University

Keywords: Primates; Behavioural ecology; Dominance; Reproduction; Life history patterns; Inter- and intra-individual variation; Hormones; Competition; Cooperation; Social bonds; Health.

Potential graduate students:

Students interested in pursuing a graduate degree in Biology at the Master’s or PhD level should take the time to review my recent publications and should contact me directly. Please see York’s "Steps to apply".

I am interested in working with students who have backgrounds in biology and/or biological anthropology, especially ones who would like to focus on some aspect of vervet reproductive strategies, dominance, development, life-history, and/or endocrinology (field site: Lake Nabugabo, Uganda). I am also interested in supervising students interested in the social behaviour and endocrinology of red colobus monkeys (field site: Kibale National Park, Uganda). Preferred qualifications include fieldwork or fieldschool experience, international experience, and computer skills (e.g.: Excel, statistical software such as SPSS or R).

Journal Articles

Schoof VAM, Bonnell TR, Jack KM, Ziegler TE, Melin AD & LM Fedigan. 2016. Male endocrine response to environmental seasonal variation in a Neotropical primate, Cebus capucinus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 159(4): 671-682.

Chapman CA, Schoof VAM, Bonnell TR, Gogarten JF & Calmé S. 2015. Competing pressures on populations: long-term dynamics of food availability, food quality, disease, stress, and animal abundance. Philosophical Transactions B. 2015 370. 

Schoof VAM, Wikberg EC, Jack KM, Fedigan LM, Ziegler TE & Kawamura S. 2014. Infanticides during periods of social stability: kinship, resumption of ovarian cycling, and mating access in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Neotropical Primates 21: 192-196.

Schoof VAM, Jack KM & TE Ziegler. 2014. Male response to female ovulation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): variation in testosterone, DHT, and glucocorticoid production. International Journal of Primatology 35: 643-660.

Schoof VAM
& KM Jack. 2014. Male social bonds: Strength and quality among coresident white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). Behaviour 151: 963-992.

González-Hernández, M, Rangel-Negrín, A, Schoof VAM, Chapman, CA, Canales-Espinosa, D & Dias, PAD. 2014. Transmission patterns of pinworms in two sympatric congeneric primate species. International Journal of Primatology 32: 445-462.  

Campos FA, Bergstrom ML, Childers A, Hogan JD, Jack KM, Melin AD, Mosdoss KN, Myers MS, Parr NA, Sargeant E, Schoof VAM, & LM Fedigan. 2014. Drivers of home range characteristics across spatiotemporal scales in a Neotropical primate. Animal Behaviour 91: 93-109.

Jack KM, Schoof VAM, Sheller CR, Rich CI & PP Klingelhofer. 2014. The influence of age and rank on fecal testosterone, DHT, and cortisol excretion in male white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. General and Comparative Endocrinology 195: 58-67.

Baker KC, Bloomsmith MA, Oettinger B, Neu K, Griffis C, Schoof V &M  Maloney. 2014. Comparing options for pair housing rhesus macaques using behavioral welfare measures. American Journal of Primatology 76: 30-42.

Schoof VAM
& KM Jack. 2013. The association of intergroup encounters, dominance status, and fecal androgen and glucocorticoid profiles in wild male white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). American Journal of Primatology 75: 107-115 .

Baker KC, Crockett CM, Oettinger BC, Schoof V & JP Thom. 2012. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: Behavior in protected contact versus full contact. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 15(2): 126-143.

Baker KC, Bloomsmith M, Oettinger B, NeuK, Griffis C, Schoof V & M Maloney. 2012. Benefits of pair housing are consistent across a diverse population of rhesus macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137(3): 148-156.

Schoof VAM, Jack KM & SD Carnegie. 2011. Rise to power: A case study of male fecal androgen and cortisol levels before and after a non-aggressive rank change in a group of wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Folia Primatologica 82 (6): 299-307. 

Schoof VAM, Jack KM & LA Isbell. 2009. What traits promote male parallel dispersal in primates? Behaviour 146: 701-726 .

Baker KC, Bloomsmith M, Neu K, Griffis C, Maloney M, Schoof VAM & M Martinez. 2009. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12: 236-252.

Jack KM, Lenz BB, Healan E, Rudman S, Schoof V & LM Fedigan. 2008. The effects of observer presence on the behavior of three groups of Cebus capucinus in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. American Journal of Primatology 70(5): 490-494.

Book Chapters



Other Publications

Schoof VAM, Corriveau A, Ziegler TE, Omeja P, Chapman CA. Accepted. Male residency, but not dominance rank and trajectory, is related to fecal hormone metabolites in male-philopatric red colobus monkeys in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Joint meeting of the International Primatological Society and the American Society of Primatologists, Chicago, Illinois, August 21-27, 2016.

Schoof VAM, Twinomugisha D, Teichroeb JA, Rothman JM, Chapman CA. 2015. Vervets in an anthropogenic landscape: Reduced breeding seasonality and mixed diet. 84th Annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, St. Louis, Missouri, March 26-30. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 154 (suppl 60):279-280

Schoof VAM, Jack KM, Melin AD, Fedigan LM. 2014. Male capuchins (Cebus capucinus) show significant endocrine responses to ecological factors. 37th Annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Decatur, Georgia, September 12-15. American Journal of Primatology 76(suppl 1): 89

Schoof VAM, Wikberg EC, Fedigan LM, Jack KM, Ziegler TE, Kawamura S. 2014. Infanticides during a socially stable period in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). 83rd Annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Calgary, Alberta, April 8-12. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153 (suppl 58):232-233.

Jack KM, Schoof VA, Fedigan LM. 2013. Seasonality of alpha male replacements in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). 36th Annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 19-22. American Journal of Primatology 75(suppl 1): 79.

Schoof VAM, Jack KM, Ziegler TE. 2013. Mating effort in male white-faced capuchins: Variation in testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and glucocorticoid production. 82nd Annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Knoxville, Tennessee, April 9-15. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 150 (suppl 56): 244-245. Invited participant.

Schoof VAM, Jack KM, Sheller CR. 2013. Social and developmental factors associated with fecal hormone levels in male Costa Rican white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Social Neuroendocrinology Pre-conference, New Orleans, Louisiana. January 17. http://blogs.uoregon.edu/socialneuroendo/data-blitz/. Invited participant.

Schoof VAM, Jack KM, 2012. Thick as thieves: Strength and quality of male co-resident social relationships in white-faced capuchins. 24th biennial congress of the International Primatological Society, CAncun, Mexico, August 12-17. Invited participant.

Jack KM, Schoof VA, Sheller CR, Rich CI, Klingelhofer PP. 2011. The influence of age and rank on fecal testosterone, DHT, and cortisol excretion in male white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. 34th Annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Austin, Texas, September 16-19. American Journal of Primatology 73 (suppl 1): 61.

Baker KC, Crockett CM, Lee GH, Oettinger BC, Schoof VA, Thom JP. 2011. Behavior of female pairs vary between protected contact and full contact pair housing in rhesus macaques but not longtailed macaques. 34th Annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Austin, Texas, September 16-19. American Journal of Primatology 73 (suppl 1): 107.

Schoof VAM, Jack KM. 2009. Rank-based differences in fecal androgen and cortisol levels in male white-faced capuchins, Cebus capucinus, in the Santa Rosa Sector, Area de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. 32nd Annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, San Diego, California, September 18-21. American Journal of Primatology 71 (suppl 1):  76.

Schoof VAM, Jack KM, Isbell LA. 2008. Birds of a feather stick together: traits promoting the evolution of parallel dispersal by male primates. 22nd biennial congress of the International Primatological Society, Edinburgh, Scotland, August 3-8. Primate Eye 96: 374. Invited participant.

Baker KC, Bloomsmith M, Neu K, Griffis C, Oettinger B, Schoof V, Clay A, Maloney M. 2008. Benefits of isosexual pairing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) vary with sex and are limited by protected contact but not by frequent separation of pairs. American Journal of Primatology (suppl 1):  44.

Bloomsmith M, Baker KC, Neu K, Griffis C, Oettinger B, Schoof V, Clay A, Maloney M. 2008. Behavioral benefits of pair housing in adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) do not depend on age, previous duration of single housing, or naturalistic rearing. American Journal of Primatology (suppl 1): 44.

Oettinger BC, Baker KC, Neu K, Griffis C, Schoof V, Maloney M, Clay A & Bloomsmith M. 2008. Wounding incidence in adult isosexual pairs of adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) during introduction and in varying pair housing conditions. American Journal of Primatology (suppl 1): 44.

Jack KM, Lenz BB, Healan E, Rudman S, Schoof V, Fedigan LM. 2007. The effects of observer presence on the behavior of three groups of Cebus capucinus in Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Costa Rica. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. Suppl 44: 134-135.

Baker K, Bloomsmith M, Schoof V, Neu K, Maloney M, Griffis C, Martinez M, Clay A. 2005. Comparing pair-housing options for caged rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 66 (suppl 1): 180.

Bloomsmith M, Baker K, Griffis C, Maloney M, Neu K, Schoof V, Martinez M. 2005. Comparing training to human interaction as enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 66 (suppl 1): 178-179.

Alvarez X, Ramesh G, Schoof V, Borda J, Sestak K, Veazey R, Lackner A. 2003. Visualizing cytokines in tissue: an added dimension to evaluation of SIV infection in rhesus macaque. Antiviral Therapy 8 (suppl 1): 289.

External (non-University) grants

2016-2021: “Individual variation in behavior and reproduction: Influence of ecological, social, and physiological factors”, Discovery Grants Program, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

2015-2017 Postdoctoral Research Scholarship, Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et Technologies; declined

2014 Committee for Research and Exploration Grant, National Geographic Society

2014 Goldberg Research Grant, The Nacey Maggioncalda Foundation

2014 Quebec Centre for Biodiversity Science

2013 Sigma Delta Epsilon, Graduate Women in Science; Honorable Mention

2009 Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant with Dr. Katharine M. Jack, National Science Foundation

2009 Committee for Research and Exploration Grant, National Geographic Society

2008 General Research Grant, L.S.B. Leakey Foundation

2007-2009 Doctoral Research Scholarship, Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et Technologies

2006 Master’s Research Scholarship, Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et Technologies

2005-2006 J. Armand Bombardier Internationalist Fellowship, Canadian Bureau for International Education

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