7 octobre de 12 h 00 à 13 h 30
Language Ecology, Contact, and Shift at Baawating: Indigenous Peoples and Language during Early Canadian Settler State Formation
Abstract: Research focused on the macro-trends in Canadian language policy (LP) has largely focused on two broad trajectories: (a) the processes of accommodation of Anglophone and Francophone communities (including the limitations of Canada’s policy of bilingualism for French-speaking or official-language minority communities) (Martel & Pâquet, 2010; Morris, 2010; Cardinal, 2015); and (b) the ongoing exclusion of The Other (i.e. “immigrant” and Indigenous communities) within Canada’s existing LP framework (Haque, 2012; Haque & Patrick, 2015; Patrick, 2018). This research turns its focus to the place of language in the state formation processes of Canada that preceded its “Bilingualism within a multicultural framework,” and its place in settler/Indigenous relations and processes of colonization. Building on the paradigm of the Anishinaabe Seven Fires prophecies and a framework that emphasizes the interplay of language practices, beliefs and management in a social ecology, this work offers a case study of the specific experiences of Indigenous peoples in the communities surrounding Baawating (at the junction of Lake Superior and Lake Huron) to exemplify: (a) how Indigenous individuals adjusted their language choices in response to institutional language policy? (b) How Canadian Indian Policy more generally affected those language choices? (c) How these choices impacted relations between Indigenous and settler peoples? And (d) how local language practice, belief, and management processes have been impacted by the surrounding socio-economic, physical, political, and cultural environments? The study uses a mixed-methods approach that combines content analysis of language policy documents, historical records, demographic data and interviews of local Indigenous residents on their experiences of language choice and use to triangulate the interplay between macro-level LP, ideologies of language, and language shift. The research demonstrates the interconnection of LP with social, economic, political and technological domains and their corresponding influence on the linguistic choices available to Indigenous peoples, which precipitated large-scale language shift. Furthermore, it illuminates how language has ‘stood-in’ for race in the construction of idealized national subjects within a liberal order since at least the early twentieth century in Canada.
Bio: Sean Meades is a recent graduate of York University’s PhD program in Linguistics and Applied Linguistics. He is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Community Economic and Social Development at Algoma University in Sault Ste. Marie, and Director of NORDIK Institute, the university’s community development and research centre focused on northern, rural and indigenous communities.
« Les noms de lieux algonquiens: une porte d’entrée sur l’usage du territoire avant et après l’arrivée des Européens »
par Professor Danielle Cyr
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Variation in Heritage Learners’ Written Spanish: Subject Personal Pronouns and Discourse Connectedness
Robert Bayley and Cory L. Holland
University of California, Davis
Spanish pronominal subjects may be realized overtly or as null, e.g. yo/Ø. hablo ‘I speak.’ Variation in Spanish subject personal pronouns (SPPs) has been studied for many years and the factors that condition such variation are well known. Among the most widely examined influences is co-reference, i.e., whether the subject is co-referential with the subject of the preceding tensed verb. Studies have found that subjects that are co-referential with the preceding subject are more likely to be null than when there is continuity of reference (e.g. Bayley, Greer & Holland 2017; de Prada Pérez 2020; Flores-Ferrán 2007). However, other studies suggest that a binary distinction between co- and switch reference fails to capture the full complexity of this constraint (e.g. Bayley & Pease-Alvarez 1997; Geeslin and Gudmestad 2011; Otheguy, Zentella 2012). Those studies found that SPP variation was conditioned by a multi-stage variable of discourse connectedness. This study extends that work to essays elicited from Spanish heritage speakers. Multivariate analysis shows that a multi-factor variable of discourse connectedness provides a more fine-grained account than a binary model of switch reference. Results also indicate that heritage writers’ choices between null and overt SPPs are conditioned by a complex array of other constraints. Finally, results suggest that SPP variation in the writing of heritage language speakers is relatively unaffected by contact with English.
Cory Holland has a PhD in Linguistics from the University of California, Davis. She is a research associate at UC Davis and a freelance data scientist working on AI language projects. Her areas of interest include sociolinguistic variation, dialects of the western US, and teaching English to both humans and computers.
Robert Bayley is a Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Davis. He is a sociolinguist who has conducted research on variation in English, Spanish, ASL, Chinese, and Italian Sign Language as well as ethnographic research in Latinx communities in California and Texas. He was President of the American Dialect Society (ADS) and is a fellow of the Linguistic Society of America and the ADS.